The verbal ability section of PMET contains 50 questions in all and is to be completed in 45 minutes. Each question carries one mark, i.e., this section carries 50 marks. KI-Unique Verbal Section/General English focuses on developing unique tips on certain topics that are included in PMET General English Section.


  • Reading Comprehension
  • Analogies
  • Sentence completion
  • Sentence correction
  • Fill in the blanks
  • Antonym & synonyms
  • Para jumbles
  • Idioms & Phrases and Spellings


  1. Apply right combination of knowledge, approach and skills.
  2. Be familiar with the test pattern, topics and kind of questions that are expected.
  3. Be aware of strengths and weaknesses in different test areas.
  4. Practice expected questions regularly. Work out on the reasons for making mistakes. Make sure you don’t repeat them in exam.


  1. Para jumbles:
    Para jumbles can be solved by 2 ways:
    • Structural Connectors and Logical Connectors: Structural Connectors are the words which connect sentences and help in finding the correct answers, often without having to read the complete sentences. Examples: hence, but, therefore, this etc. Logical connectors are based on inherent logic which you draw.
    • Always try for the structural connectors first.
  2. Improve grammar
    • By developing ability in functional usage of words, idioms and phrases.
    • This can be achieved by going through any book that gives a summary of the rules of grammar.
  3. Improve English Usage & vocabulary:
    • By reading a lot, one can come across different words and study them.
    • This can enhance vocabulary and this vocabulary can help in solving synonyms, antonyms, analogies and fill in the blanks.


  1. A child should not be - as being either very shy or over - agcatssive.
    1. categorized
    2. instructed
    3. intoned
    4. distracted
    5. refrained
      Ans: A
  2. President Anwar el - Sadat of Egypt, disregarding - criticism in the Alab world and in his own Government, - accepted Prime Minister Menahem Begin's invitation to visit Israel in order to address the Israeli parliament.
    1. acrimonious - formally
    2. blemished - stiffly
    3. categorical - previously


  1. Connect with the RC passage. This connection should be with the tone of the passage. These tones can be abstract, analytical or narrative and descriptive.
  2. Attempt the descriptive and analytical passages preferably.
  3. Reading is necessary for sure but in the right context. It should be:
    • With Concentration and active reading:
    • There should be purpose and intention to concentrate.
    • Functional reading:
    • It means reading done with a purpose to assimilate information.
    • Looking for information:
    • While reading, always look for information.
    • Cultivate an eye for concrete detail:
    • Distinguish between fact and opinion before you move on.
  4. Facts to remember for RC:
    • Your eye span i.e., the number of words you read in a particular time span should be broad.
    • Having a pen in your hand as you read will increase both your speed and comprehension in reading.


Child labor is a troubling phenomenon and the focus of an intense political and policy debate, with proposals ranging from legislative bans and schooling subsidies in poor countries to trade sanctions against countries where child labor exists. Now an NBER Working Paper by Rajeev Dehejia and Roberta Gatti draws attention to the relationship between child labor in poor countries and the availability of credit. In Child Labor: The Role of Income Variability and Access to Credit Across Countries (NBER Working Paper No. 9018), the researchers suggest that extending access to borrowing may be an effective way of reducing child labor in poor countries.

In 1995, according to data from the International Labor Organization (ILO), there were 120 million children engaged in full-time paid work. The incidence of child labor was 2.3 percent of the work force among countries in the upper quartile of GDP per capita and 34 percent among countries in the lowest quartile of GDP per capita. Clearly, there is an established link between child labor and poverty. However, Dehejia and Gatti ask whether specific policy proposals might help to combat child poverty, independent of the more complicated challenge of promoting higher economic growth rates.

They begin with the theoretical link between child labor and financial development. Putting children to work raises current family income, but by interfering with the development of human capital among children, it reduces families' future income. The child can make an immediate contribution to household income, but this comes with a long-term cost. In addition to schooling, the researchers note, time spent at play contributes to a child's cognitive development (and thus is an investment in the child's future.)

The key economic variable that allows households to make the optimal trade-off between current and future income is access to credit. If households can borrow against future income, they can smooth earnings shocks without sending their children to work. If they cannot borrow, parents may choose an inefficiently high level of labor for their children.

Dehejia and Gatti proceed to conduct a cross-country comparison, using the degree of development of financial markets in a country as a measure of the credit constraints that households face. (The proxy for credit constraints is the ratio of private credit issued by deposit banks to GDP. This isolates credit issued to the private sector, excluding the government and public.)

They measure the extent of child labor as the percentage of the population aged 10-14 that is working, using ILO data for 172 countries since 1962. "Working" includes work for a wage/salary in cash or in kind, as well as unpaid family work. The ILO data does not distinguish between light work and full-time work that would interfere with human capital accumulation. However, because it relies on internationally accepted definitions, it allows cross-country comparisons.

The results confirm that as the availability of credit increases the prevalence of child labor decreases. The magnitude of the estimated coefficient is small for the full sample, relative to income. However, the relationship is particularly large in the sample of poor countries that have both less developed financial markets and a higher proportion of child labor - and therefore are of the most policy interest. In poor countries, a move from the 25th to the 75th percentile of access to credit is associated with a 4.2 percentage point decrease in child labor.

Thus, access to credit plays a significant role in explaining child labor. Dehejia and Gatti also look at the question of income shocks: that is, whether families send their children to work to help them cope with negative income shocks. If credit were widely available and households could borrow to smooth income variability, then they might not disrupt their children's education or leisure time. Splitting the sample into those countries where credit is widely available and those countries where it is not, the authors find that income variability in the low credit group enters the specification significantly and the magnitude of the coefficient is substantial. In the high-credit group of countries, the effect of income volatility on child labor is very close to zero. This confirms that household access to credit dampens the impact of income variability on child labor.

  1. According to the author, there is a relationship between
    1. child labor and availability of credit in poor countries
    2. poverty levels and child labor
    3. GDP and child labor
    4. all the above
  2. Putting children to work
    1. raises current family income
    2. raises future family income
    3. is good for the development of the child
    4. none of the above
  3. According to the passage, which of the following is true
    1. There is a relationship between the availability of credit and the prevalence of child labor
    2. The impact of credit on child labor is most evident in developed financial markets
    3. Suggestions for reducing child labor include school subsidies and withdrawal of trade sanctions
    4. There is a significant variation in the effect of income volatility among the low-credit group and high credit group countries
    1. a, b, c
    2. b, c, d
    3. a, c, d
    4. a, b, d
  4. ILO defines "working" as:
    1. working for wages/ salary
    2. only full - time work
    3. both (a) and (b) are wrong
    4. both (a) and (b) are correct
  5. Which of the following statements are correct?
    1. development of financial markets is related to child labor
    2. poor countries have less developed financial markets
    3. policy makers are interested in studying the impact of financial markets on child labor
    4. all the above
Correct Answer to Passage
  1. d
  2. a
  3. c
  4. c
  5. a
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